IBM (USA) - In 1891, Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, two businessmen from Dayton, Ohio, purchased the patents for the newly invented computing scale and incorporated the Computing Scale Company for the production of commercial scales. A Computing Scale Company scale from the 1890s:Front cover of a sales catalog from January 1920. The cover shows Clocks, scales and tabulating equipment:
The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR only adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924. IBM today:
IBM is a global technology and innovation company headquartered in Armonk, NY. It is the largest technology and consulting employer in the world, with more than 400,000 employees serving clients in 170 countries. IBM offers a wide range of technology and consulting services; a broad portfolio of middleware for collaboration, predictive analytics, software development and systems management; and the world's most advanced servers and supercomputers. Utilizing its business consulting, technology and R&D expertise, IBM helps clients become "smarter" as the planet becomes more digitally interconnected.
IBM invests more than $6 billion a year in R&D, just completing its 21st year of patent leadership. IBM Research has received recognition beyond any commercial technology research organization and is home to 5 Nobel Laureates, 9 US National Medals of Technology, 5 US National Medals of Science, 6 Turing Awards, and 10 Inductees in US Inventors Hall of Fame. The company was behind the inventions of the PC; SABRE travel reservation system; UPC codes, Watson, the Jeopardy!-playing computing system, and much more.